スウエーデンの面白いものたち


by nyfiken
カレンダー
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今、読みたいネットセキュウリテイ専門家のエッセイ

現代、コンピューターのネットユーザー、私を含めてブログを書く人、フェイスブックをする人、トウィッターなどプライベートな情報がネット上で公開され、見知らぬ人たちと自分のプライベートを簡単に話したり、書いたりする時代は、個人情報が知らない間に、売り買いされる時代となっている。ネットセキュウリテイは、もはやネットヴァイルスの問題ではなく、ハッカーが得る情報ではなく、むしろ、知らない間に構築され、瓜買いされる個人情報。例えばGOOGLEのGMAILでは、知らない間に、書いているメール文中から言葉が自動的によりわけられ、コマーシャルがどんどんとはいってくる。

ブラウザの影に隠されたものは、便利さとは別に、書き手が何を好み、どういう人間と交流し、どういう好み、消費傾向があるなどが、相手のほうに情報としてわたる。この情報は、書けば書くほどその人間像が構築されていく。GOOGLEは平等ではあるが、中国が国から追い出した理由は、むしろ中国内の情報がメールを通じて、すべて個人情報が記録される特別な機能を憂いたものという理由が大きいのでは思う。ならば、YAHOOやHOTMAILなどは_私の理解するところでは、GMAILは、ヴァイルスに関してもかなりセキュウリテイが高く、安心して使えるが、たとえば、メール内に、入ってきた土地名などに関する宣伝など知らない間に、自分の情報に関連したCMが隣にしっかりと現れている。

かつての広告代理店が、一般のだれにでも向けて広告をだしていたものならば、おそらく今の広告のやりかたは、多様化する個人の興味やニーズに元ついた広告をその人のコンピューター画面を開いた時に、テイジするといったものが多いのではないだろうか。GOOGLEで探索した名前や、お店などは記録され、例えば、私がオレンジちゃんだったらオレンジちゃんの全てのデータ記録に、かわいい犬、あんこ、おしるこの美味しい店、などがピラミッドのように積み重なり、気がつけば、お汁粉屋の宣伝やかわいい犬用のジャケットのお店などがコンピューターをひらき、さあメールを書こうかと思った時に、いやがおうでも目に付くシステムとなるのは、理解ができる。

さて、今世界で一番注目している個人情報ネット上の安全性。フェイスブックやトウィッッターユーザーに本当の名前で登録している若者が将来どういった問題が起こりうるか、少し警告をしている学者のエッセー。を抜粋したい。英語だが、英語が苦手なら、自動翻訳機能を使って読んでみてほしい。なるほど、と思う。アメリカのほうが日本より進んでいるネット上のいろいろな考え方、その中で彼が積極的にでてきたのは、それなりの理由がある。

Architecture of Privacy
By Bruce Schneier
IEEE Security & Privacy
January/February 2009

The Internet isn't really for us. We're here at the beginning, stumbling around, just figuring out what it's good for and how to use it. The Internet is for those born into it, those who have woven it into their lives from the beginning. The Internet is the greatest generation gap since rock and roll, and only our children can hope to understand it.

Larry Lessig famously said that, on the Internet, code is law. Facebook's architecture limits what we can do there, just as gravity limits what we can do on Earth. The 140-character limit on SMSs is as effective as a legal ban on grammar, spelling, and long-winded sentences: KTHXBYE.

As architects of the Internet, we have a special responsibility to our children to build an Internet that future generations will be proud of, one that encompasses basic human rights and values. We do this when we build systems that offer universal access support, open interfaces, and net neutrality, bypass censorship, limit surveillance, fight repression, give people control over their digital presence and digital personas, and foster individual liberty and privacy—especially privacy.

This would all be easier if the choices we made were temporary. But if history is any guide, they're not. Architecture, both physical and virtual, stays around far longer than we intend it to. College campuses built in the 1970s to limit student protests are still standing, as are buildings designed to defend against medieval siege engines. ASCII and TCP/IP aren't going anywhere anytime soon; neither are domain names, email addresses, or HTML. It's been many years, and we still haven't managed to get either DNSSEC or IPV6 deployed. A “just for now” decision can easily remain for decades.

Business and political realities make privacy harder. Some business models depend on walled gardens or invasive digital rights management controls. Other business models depend on collecting and selling personal data. Some countries depend on censorship to enforce morality or keep ideas out, while others depend on surveillance to control their citizens.

The natural tendencies of the Internet make privacy harder. Technology is the friend of intrusive tools. Digital sensors become smaller and more plentiful. More data is collected and stored every year. Privacy isn't something that occurs naturally online, it must be deliberately architected.

Companies that retain personal information put their customers at risk. Security breaches, court orders, and disgruntled employees are just a few of the ways to lose control of data. Good architectures that minimize data collection reduce these risks, just like guardrails on highways prevent more serious accidents when drivers lose control of their vehicles.

We need to be more deliberate. A lot of information-age architecture is about data: what is collected, who controls it, and how it is used. Data is the lifeblood of the information age, but much of it is very personal. We need to design systems that limit unnecessary data collection, give individuals control over their data, and limit the ability of those in power to use that data for mass surveillance.

Data is the pollution of the information age. It's a byproduct of every computer-mediated interaction; all processes produce it. It stays around forever, unless it's disposed of. It can be recycled, but it has to be done carefully. And, like physical pollution during the early decades of the industrial age, most people completely ignore the problem.

Just as we look back at the beginning of the previous century and shake our heads at how the titans of the industrial age could ignore the pollution they caused, future generations will look back at us—in the early decades of the information age—and judge our architecture, and what we did to foster freedom, liberty, and democracy. Did we build information technologies that protected people's freedoms even during times when society tried to subvert them? Or did we build technologies that could easily be modified to watch and control? History will record our choices
by nyfiken | 2010-11-26 19:43