スウエーデンの面白いものたち


by nyfiken

2012年 07月 01日 ( 5 )

日本の政治家に是も読んで欲しい。いまだに江戸時代みたいに悪代官が自分の利益のためだけに動いて
日本の本当の将来の存続のために生涯を捧げていない。寺子屋にもう一度そういった人たちは入りなおして道徳を勉強しなおすべき。先祖がくれた美しい国を、海の幸や山の幸を愛してきた我々の国を汚してしまった人たちは、本当に国を思う専門家の意見を無視して、自分たちの今の利益のみを考える人たち。エゴは国を豊にするどころか、砂上の楼閣のように国を滅ぼす。将来の日本の存続のためには、きっぱりと核をやめて、武士のように潔く、エネルギー政策を転換し、世界のエネルギー先進国たるべく努力をいちから始めればいい。ドイツに学んできた我々は、どうして今自国での原発をやめて、負の遺産をおもりしながらも、新たに模索するといった行動を今とらないのだろうか。占い師の女性のことばは、気つき。何かに気がつくことが必要という。我々に知らしめられたことに多くの人に気がついている。
政府がいい加減だと、経済発展以前に多くの罪のない人間が無駄に死んでしまう。理念ある政治家はどこにいるのだろうか。国を救えるリーダーたちの理念と勇気ある行動が待ち望まれる。

The Swedish nuclear power plants are robust and resistant against most extreme events, but for some events it becomes necessary improvements. Nuclear power plants are not fully dimensioned to handle an accident scenario where multiple reactors are knocked out simultaneously and for lengthy events. The assessment is made by Radiation Safety in its analysis of the nuclear installations stress tests.

Now the Radiation Safety Authority reviewed the nuclear plant and the central interim storage facility for spent kärnbränsles (CLAB) final reports of stress tests.

- The stress tests are an important contribution in efforts to improve security at the Swedish nuclear power plants. We have identified several areas where it is necessary to conduct further analyzes. However, our overall assessment is that the Swedish plants are robust and there is no reason for us to impose some restrictions on the operation of the facilities, said Jan Hanberg, project manager for the stress tests and the Chief of the Radiation Safety.

A strength is that all Swedish reactors have breakdowns filter that allows the radioactive substances are filtered out at a discharge. This means that the impact on the environment is significantly reduced in an accident. Wreck The filters were installed after the nuclear accident in Three Mile Island (Harrisburg).

Deviations from the applicable requirements

In a few cases the stress tests to deficiencies in relation to or deviations from the applicable requirements for safety analysis.

- It shows how important the work of the stress tests have been. We will in these cases to impose the license holders to take action that makes the plants meet current requirements, says Jan Hanberg. Take, for example if we want to see more detailed analyzes of how the reactors can withstand earthquakes.

Accident management must be improved

But if what in Japan is an accident in which several reactors are affected simultaneously shows the stress tests the readiness of the facilities are not designed for such a scenario.

- In such a scenario, it is not certain that the resources used for the entire plant is adequate, for example, fire intensity, the joint command center and staff. In addition, nuclear power plants further investigate the failure of the filters function in an extended course similar to what happened in Japan, says Jan Hanberg.

The stress tests also show that the reserve force and the systems to deliver water from the plant needs to be further strengthened. Take, for example on another system that is independent of the existing reserve power, to pump water to cool the core and more mobile diesel generators.

Resistance to earthquakes must be further analyzed

In Sweden, only the youngest two reactors, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, which was originally designed to withstand earthquakes. For the other reactors, the demands made after the fact. Now consider that the Radiation Safety analyzes for the older reactors need to be supplemented further to find out if they fully withstand a major earthquake.

In the statements that the facilities left the ice storms have not been analyzed in detail.

- We will require that licensees of the facilities to analyze the implications of ice storms and propose measures, says Jan Hanberg.

Additional Information:
January Hanberg, Chief of the Radiation Safety. Can be reached by press-call 08-799 40 20 after 11:00 am. 08-799 40 20

Facts

By 31 December leaving the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority report to the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG).

This spring, a specially appointed group of international experts, called a peer review team, review country reports.

In June presents the results of stress tests for the European Council.

Interim reporting: Follow-up experience from the nuclear accident in Fukushima

Read more about the stress tests


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December 16, 2011
by nyfiken | 2012-07-01 08:26

EU Stress Tests


スウェーデンのサイトから見つけたEUのストレステストについての記事の部分。ストレステストは、
地震のほとんどないスウェーデンの基準より日本のほうが厳しくなければいけない。さて福島の事故を受けてEU諸国やスウェーデンもストレステストについての実施報告と厳しくなっている。本家本元日本では、
それ以上の厳しさが求められるのに、専門家の意見を無視し、事故が起きてしまってからどうするかまでを想定し対策をきちんと考えていない日本のストレステスト合格というのは、国際的に認められるものなのだろうか。



The European Council of 24/25 March, 2011, requested that the safety of all EU nuclear plants should be reviewed, on the basis of a comprehensive and transparent risk and safety assessment ("stress tests"). These “stress tests” are defined as targeted reassessments of the safety margins of nuclear power plants, developed by ENSREG, including the European Commission.

As security threats are not part of the mandate of ENSREG a two-track process has been developed.

The “safety track” covers extraordinary triggering events like earthquakes and floods and the consequences of any other initiating events (e.g. transport accidents, such as airplane crashes) potentially leading to multiple loss of safety functions requiring severe accident management. All the operators of nuclear power plants in the EU had to review the response of their nuclear plants to those extreme situations. The operators’ reports were first reviewed by the national nuclear regulators. They then prepared summary national reports.

The final national reports will be reviewed by Review Teams, set up by ENSREG. The peer review process is now finished. ENSREG has endorsed the ENSREG Summary Report (http://www.ensreg.eu/EU-Stress-Tests/EU-level-Reports) on 26 April 2012 with the 17 country specific peer review reports attached to it.

As soon as the peer review process started, the public and stakeholders were provided with the opportunity to engage in the “stress tests”.

A two-phase approach allows for an interim report to the European Council, December 9, 2011, and another report to the European Council in June 2012.

Regarding the “security track” COREPER decided on the establishment of the Ad Hoc Group on Nuclear Security.

The European Commission is also in close contact with countries outside the EU and is working with them on re-assessing their nuclear power plants.
by nyfiken | 2012-07-01 08:16
Stress tests are reviewed by international experts

Right now examine international experts in all EU countries' stress test reports. In late March, a team of experts to Sweden to discuss the Swedish report. In May, the entire review process of their stress tests completed.

After the nuclear accident in Japan, the EU's Council of Ministers of all EU nuclear countries would examine how the nuclear power plants can withstand events that are even worse than previously expected, so-called stress tests.

In summer and autumn of 2011 carried out the Swedish nuclear industry stress tests, then examined the Radiation Safety industry analyzes and compiled the national report.

- But the stress tests are of course not concerned with the practical test what happens if there is a elbortfall or an earthquake. It has instead been about in theory, analyze how well the nuclear power plants can withstand such powerful earthquakes or floods larger than previously expected, says Jan Hanberg.

Radiation Safety Authority was responsible for compiling the Swedish report, delivered to the EU on 31 December. In the Swedish report, found that the Swedish nuclear plants are robust and resistant against most extreme events, but that improvement is required to handle certain events. One such example is that nuclear plants are not fully dimensioned to handle an accident scenario where multiple reactors are knocked out simultaneously, or for protracted events. Another example is that nuclear plants need to be further analyzed on Unit fully withstand a very strong earthquake.


Now, in spring 2012, review of international experts - a so-called peer review team - the national reports. From the Radiation Safety Authority participates five experts in the review of the three countries' reports, Germany, Lithuania and Switzerland.

- There is probably no country where power plants are designed to cope with accidents in which several reactors are knocked out simultaneously. Although failure events that are extended in time need most countries investigate more. Otherwise it's too early to generalize about different countries' results of stress tests, says Jan Hanberg.

First, review experts, country reports and produces a report draft. Then they meet in Luxembourg to work on the Reports. Finally, field a team of experts to each country to discuss outstanding issues.

In Sweden, a team of experts in late March. The experts found the staff at Radiation Safety Authority and will also visit one of the Swedish nuclear power plants.

- The point of the process is to knowledgeable people with a critical eye goes through the various country reports. They examine, for example, if we take into account all relevant contingencies. The review means that we learn from each other, says Jan Hanberg.

Facts

Work on the stress tests are divided into five areas:

Earthquake
Flooding
Extremes of weather
Total elbortfall
Total loss of the Cooling

Accident Management
The international reviewers are divided into six groups visiting the three countries. The reviewers are then also responsible for different parts of the stress tests, one group examines earthquakes, floods and extreme weather, a group examining a total elbortfall and total loss of cooling. The third group examines the failure handling.

Read more about the stress tests

Our work on stress tests
EU Council of Ministers in spring 2011 agreed that all EU countries would carry out stress tests. Each country produced a national report in spring 2012 were reviewed by international experts. The review process was completed in May 2012. Use the results of stress tests has Radiation Safety Authority demanded that the Swedish nuclear plants to report action plans to the Authority by 15 September 2012.

In the same way as was previously learned from nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island (Harrisburg), the world's nuclear nations to learn from the accident in Japan Fukushima. The EU Council of Ministers in spring 2011, it was therefore agreed that all EU countries would undertake a review of security at the European nuclear power plants, so-called stress tests.

In addition to the requirements of the EU the Swedish government decided that the central interim storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (CLAB) would be stress tested.

It was the nuclear industry who conducted the stress tests, while the Radiation Safety Authority reviewed its analyzes and compiled a national report.
results the agency has reported both to the government, and the European Nuclear Safety Regulators Group (ENSREG). The stress tests for CLAB recognized only to the government. In spring 2012 examined a group of international experts in country reports, so-called peer review. The review process was completed in May.


In light of the results of stress tests has Radiation Safety Authority demanded that the Swedish nuclear plants to report åtgrärdsplaner to the Authority by 15 September 2012.

Read more about the stress tests on ENSREG's website: ENSREG


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by nyfiken | 2012-07-01 08:01
June 29, 2012
Radiation Safety Authority warns dentists from directly importing a certain type of handheld x-ray and recalls that require a permit from the Authority for the use of such equipment. The reason is that the British Health Protection Agency (HPA) found that radiation doses from the equipment is too high.

Radiation Safety Authority has from the British organization Health Protection Agency, HPA, received a report that a handheld X-ray machine that is intended for dental and imported from China have defects in radiation safety. The apparatus, which is very low priced, is not CE marked and can be directly imported by ordering over the internet. - HPA has measured the radiation doses that the device gives the operator and patient and concluded that radiation doses are too high. We want to warn dentists from directly importing such equipment and points out to require a permit from the Radiation Safety Authority to import any type of X-ray, says Anders Wikander, inspector at the Nuclear Power Inspectorate. Radiation Safety Authority has not yet received reports that this or similar devices are in Sweden.




In the past, FDA, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, warned against this kind of device.

Additional information: Anders Wikander, inspector, accessed via the Authority's press office 08-799 40 20 . 08-799 40 20

Fact:
The obligation to seek permission applies both to manufacture, import, sale, transfer, lease, acquisition, possession, use, install or maintain any type of X-ray equipment. For regular dental x-ray apparatus for intraoral imaging Radiation Act requirements are met by a general license, as described in regulation SSMFS 2008:5. For all other x-ray requires a special permit.

Appendix:
HPA DXPS report: Tianjie Dental 'Falcon' Handheld X-ray set Imported from China: Summary of HPA radiation protection assessment results link to the FDA: U.S. Food and Drug Administration





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by nyfiken | 2012-07-01 07:52
Stress Tests: Nuclear power plants must report action plans

April 26, 2012
Now that the country requires the Radiation Safety NPPs indicate plans for the measures to be implemented as a result of the stress tests. Action plans will be reported to the Authority by 15 September 2012.

In late December the Radiation Safety Authority a report on the stress tests nuclear power plants did after the nuclear accident in Japan last year. During the spring, then international experts examined the Swedish report. In light of both these examinations require the Agency now that nuclear power plants indicate plans to further strengthen its resistance to earthquakes, floods and extreme weather conditions such as ice storms.

- We see no need for immediate action from nuclear power plants. It depends largely on the Swedish plants successively carried out important safety improvements, and partly by the failure filter, introduced in the 1980s, partly through the work of the modernization that we adopted in the early 2000's. The Swedish strategy has been to continually work with security improvements, said Jan Hanberg, Chief of the Radiation Safety.

- But the work of the stress tests were still important because it demonstrated both the potential improvements and shortcomings to be addressed by the works in the long term to strengthen the reactor's resistance to such natural disasters.

Radiation Safety Authority expects the plant response plans including the following areas:

ways to cool the spent fuel pool (diversified cooling)
water source independent of the other power supply
enhanced power supply
measures to deal with failures when multiple plants are affected at the same time or where the incident becomes protracted
Nuclear power plant action plans shall be reported to the Authority by 15 September 2012.

Additional Information:
January Hanberg, Chief of the Radiation Safety Authority, 08-799 42 21 . 08-799 42 21

Here you can download the injunctions: http://www.stralsakerhetsmyndigheten.se/Global/Publikationer/Myndighetshandling/Beslut/2012/rab-forelaggande-om-redovisning-av-atgardsplaner-baserade-pa-resultaten-fran-stresstesterna.pdf

Injunction Forsmark Ringhals Injunction Injunction Oskarshamn Read more about the stress tests: Our work on the stress tests Read news about ENSREG: EU joint action plan to strengthen nuclear safety

adiation Protection 171 16 Stockholm | Visiting address: Solna Strandväg 96 | Phone: 08-799 40 00 | Fax: 08-799 40 10 | 08-799 40 00
by nyfiken | 2012-07-01 07:40