スウエーデンの面白いものたち


by nyfiken
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2013年 12月 12日 ( 1 )

今日の新聞では、コラムにやはり世界で行われたPISAテストのスウェーデンの学力低下中学生15歳の試験の結果があまりに振るわず、このままではいけない。といった政治家や教育者などの声が高まる中、アメリカの1996年にだされた本を引き合いに精神分析家的なアプローチが紹介されていた。家庭にもっと教育に対する熱意の参加を促す等が書かれていたが、教師の質を向上させるべくフィンランド型のスタイルは、あまり論じられてないようだ。

フィンランドの大成功の陰に、生徒の教育の前に、教師の質の向上に万全の策がとられたことを指摘する論調がスウェーデンの新聞にあまりない。どうやら隣国と比べたくないスウェーデン人のプライドがあるのかもしれないが。フィンランドを引き合いに出す代わりに、アメリカに回答を求めたり(アメリカ自身義務教育のレベル低下に悩む。)ドイツにモデルを見出そうとしている。

面白い点は、ドイツの移民の子供たちの成績は、一般のアメリカ人の中学生と同じレベルというから、かなり高い。言葉が不自由な中でドイツ語で読解テストなどを受けなければいけない移民の子供たちの苦労を思う。がスウェーデンでも必死に勉強する移民の子供たちがすばらしい点をとっている上位成績優秀者が、移民のバックグランドを持つ子供も多いことが指摘されている。10日のドイツにモデルを見出そうとしているストックホルムKTHの先生の記事
抜粋より。SVDのOPINIONのページより。12月10日自動翻訳オリジナルスウェーデン語

これによると2000年にはかなり落ち込んだドイツの学生の中学3年生の学習到達度レベルも、あがりつつある。ドイツでは、下のほうの成績の生徒のレベルが国の政策により上がってきていることにより、全体の成績もあがったという。どういう方法論を用いたのだろうか。スウェーデンが習うところはあるのだろうか。とドイツがいまやフィンランドやスイス並みになってきたことへの方法論のモデルを見出そうとするスウェーデンの識者の意見である。スウェーデンでは、宿題をせず、親が教育に感心がなかったり、子供にまかせっきりで、学習意欲がない子供も増えている。また子供の中では、スポーツや他の事に夢中で勉強が後回しになる。家庭での親の勉強をさせようとする熱意や教育が更に求められるというのは、今日の新聞での記事だったが、ドイツに見習って、スウェーデンも学校改革をしなければいけないとする意見は、今日のSVDの新聞のコラム内のアメリカの本に答えを見つけようとする論より実際的だ。

So has Germany lift school performance

The Germans have met their school crisis engineering and quickly focused on solid measurement and measures the experimental research literature has shown works, writes Stefan Fölster, director of the Reform Institute.
December 10, 2013 at 01:26, Updated: December 10, 2013 at 9:39
FOCAL POINT | PISA SURVEY
Stefan Fölster
Students split up already from the fifth grade depending on the intellectual ability and interest.

At the same rate as Sweden has plummeted in the OECD PISA surveys, Germany has climbed every year, after a very bad note in 2000 when the first measurement was made. Now, Germany is catching up Finland, Switzerland and other countries located near the top, especially in science and mathematics.
Since many Swedish school debaters groping wildly for explanations for Sweden's race, it may be useful to examine further how the German climbing achievements.

Particularly noteworthy is that the weakest student performance has improved most in Germany, while they have deteriorated sharply in Sweden. Although immigrant children has improved a lot, which is interesting since Germany is also a major refugee and immigration recipients. Immigrant children now have the same average performance in mathematics as the average for all children in the United States.



How have they done? After the shock of 2000, Germany direct importance to what research findings say about successful schools. For this reason, it has not bothered much about many of the theses cocksure alleged in Sweden. It has for example not centralized or nationalized school. The Länder are responsible for schools, although considerably larger than the Swedish municipalities. But it was also when Germany had very poor results. However, the Länder Ministers of Education started to cooperate more.

It has not introduced new teacher IDs. It has not brought more resources greater than Sweden. Nor has Germany restricted the freedom of choice that exists between schools. The school system is in some ways more segregated than in Sweden, because the students split up already from the fifth grade depending on the intellectual ability and interest to a nine year old and a twelve year old school. It has not stopped Pisa recovery. Even in Sweden may be noted that the largest profit race has taken place in the 55 communes that have no competition or choice in their primary schools, according to a survey by the Reform Institute.

However, Germany has built out things that work well in Sweden, such as having more children in the preschool. And also some introduced in Sweden in recent years. These include a new curriculum, more national tests and better teacher training.

The likely key reforms are taken directly from the experimental school research. Exactly how did vary somewhat from state to state. But roughly, it has followed the same pattern.

Firstly, it has already been ten years ago introduced the so-called formative assessments where children already in preschool examined fairly closely, and the need for specific support actions mapped. These support measures are then inserted early and for several years, and efforts are made to involve the parents in this work and even educate them too.

Another important reform orientation is a much more systematic school evaluation. National tests were supplemented early with regular spot checks to ensure that you measure in a similar manner in the schools. The schools regularly make a "self-evaluation" that routinely supplemented with an external evaluation. Both of these have focused on how learning goes to rather than purely formal requirements. In Sweden, buying local or individual schools sometimes in such external evaluations. But it is more the exception than the rule.

New public management in the form of relevant outcome measures are therefore considered in Germany to be a very important part of success, also fully in line with the research literature. One reason for the backlash against the new public management in Sweden can be that much of the performance measurement stopped at the paperwork. Schools Inspectorate audits, for example, has become more widespread, but has been criticized for almost exclusively examine the forms and processes.

In addition, also the order of the school prioritized. Discipline problems are fewer. Get truants compared to other countries. A general observation is that, in particular, is better for the German boys than Swedish.

In summary, the Germans turned their school crisis engineering, and quickly focused on solid measurement and measures the experimental research literature has shown works. So, for that matter, other climbers made, such as Canada. To the point where the development has been so much slower in Sweden may possibly be due to pedagogy research here has lived very isolated from international developments and rarely exposed his theses to empirical test. This has led to too many dead-end track.

Stefan Fölster

Head of the Reform Institute and adj. Professor of Economics at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)
by nyfiken | 2013-12-12 18:06